Los Mandatos Formales

Imagínate que tienes la oportunidad para decirle a un profesor o al rector o a tu jefe que haga algo.  ¿Qué le dirías que hiciera?  Más importante, ¿Cómo lo harías?
Pues....emplearías mandatos formales.

Mandatos Formales....¿Qué son?  Es fácil traducir al inglés que son- las palabras son cognados, ¿no?  mandado = mandate, formal = formal.  A formal mandate.  What's a mandate?  An order or command.  What's the formal all about?  As we know there are two ways to use the second person (you) in Spanish- familiar (tú y vosotros) and formal* (usted [Ud.] and ustedes [Uds.]).  So a mandato formal is a command you would use when addressing someone with whom you should use Ud. or Uds.

*In general, use Ud. with your elders, people to whom you wish or should show respect, employers and people whom you do not know well- as a sign of courtesy.  Uds. is the plural of this, as well as in most American countries the plural for "tú" also.

I.    La formación

Is this going to be another verb form?  Sí.

How do I form this one?  Correctamente, espero.  Sigue las instrucciones siguientes.

*Terminaciones opuestas
Verbos en AR
Verbos en ER/IR

Sounds easy.  Are there any tricks?

You have to remember to always start with the YO form of the verb- don't work form the infinitive. That's why it's so important to have mastered the present tense yo forms!  Now (I hope) you understand.  Let's look at a few: (Some sound weird, but let them serve their purpose as guidelines.)


Let's try a few to see if you do.  Write the UD. command for the following verbs.

Go check your answers.

Is there more to know?  ¡Claro!

Let's think for a minute.  Why do some words in Spanish have a spelling change?  Go see if you are correct.  This will apply to three types of verbs in mandatos formales.  But rather than just look at the rules, let's work backwards and make up the actual rule.  Imagine you wanted to tell your boss to look for a new job.  What verb would you use?  BUSCAR.  Of course you can't tell him to his face to do this- he'd fire you.  So instead you want to leave him a note.  You start with some scrap paper and write out the words- BUSCAR>  BUSCO>  BUSC>  ¡BUSCE!  You realize that this looks weird, so using your pronunciation guide you read the word- BOOS + SAY.  You want to say BOOS + KAY.  How would you do this?  How about "QUE"?  ¡BUSQUE! Of course!  That's it.  So the rule:

Do you remember when you have done this before?  Check.

Para practicar:  Escribe el mandato para Uds. para los verbos siguientes:

Go check your answers.

Are there any irregulars?  Lo siento, sí.
 Learn these:  tarjetas???????Estudiar??????Esperar?????  (None of these end in "o" in the "yo", so you couldn't follow the rule anyway.)

II.  Mandatos y pronombres objetivos

What are object pronouns?  They could be direct (me, te, lo. las, nos, los, las) indirect or reflexive.  Review these individually if necessary.

Some really simple rules to follow:

Let's look at some examples: ¿Comprendes?

Para practicar...En tu libreta, escribe el pronombre en el lugar correcto- poniéndolo delante de un mandato negativo y atayéndolo al final de un mandato afirmativo.  Recuerda escribir el acento si es necesario.

el lápiz    ...traiga...
a Juan     no...pregunte...
"se"        ...lave...
las chicas    ...inviten...
a los profesores   no ...hable...

Go check.

A little more complicated ahora...

Answer the following questions- with commands- both affirmatively and negativiely, employing the appropriate object pronouns correctly.

Go check.

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Respuestas y más

Primera actividad:detenga, escriba, elija (did you remember the stem change and the spelling change?), consiga, obedezca, produzca, trabaje, cunete, pierda, sienta, diga, venga, envíe, actúe  How did  you do?  haz clic en BACK para regresar.

Why do words change spelling?  To keep the integrity of the pronunciation!

GAR,CAR,ZAR:toquen, nieguen, lleguen, alcen, comiencen, empiecen, ahoguen, paguen, choquen, almuercen  How did you do?

El pretérito- Toqué, Llegué, Empecé, etc.

¡Tráigalo! ¡No le pregunte!  ¡Lávese!  ¡Invítenlas!  ¡No les hable!

¡Acuéstese! / ¡No se acueste!; ¡Escríbanla! / ¡No la escriban!;  ¡Háblele! / ¡No le hable!;  ¡Váyanse! / ¡No se vayan!;  ¡Tráigalo! / ¡No lo traiga!;  ¡Pídanlos! / ¡No los pidan!;  ¡Háganlo! / ¡No lo hagan!;  ¡Grábenla! / ¡No la graben!; ¡Síganla! / ¡No la sigan!;  ¡Levántense temprano! / ¡No se levanten temprano!  How did you do?

Un breve repaso de los pronombres objetivos

Reflexivos:  me , te, se, nos, os, se>  These are used when the subject does the action to himself.  Se lava la cara. Me despierto, etc.  There are also a number of verbs that are idiomatically reflexive- quejarse (to complain), imaginarse (to imagine), aburrirse ( to become bored), entristecerse ( to get sad), etc.  If necessary, review verbos reflexivos in a book, or at studyspanish.com lesson 1, and lesson 2

Directos:  me, te, lo, la, nos, os, los, las > These pronouns are used to replace the direct object- the thing or person that receives (directly) the action of the verb.  Who has the book? I have IT.  (Lo tengo) Who eats grapes?  Bob eats THEM. (Bob las come.)  These agree in number and gender with the object and can NEVER be used as the subject of a verb.  (The subject IT is NEVER expressed in Spanish.)  If necessary to review do lessons at studyspanish.com - lessons 41 - 42 - 43, or of course you can use a book.

Indirectos:  me, te, le, nos, os, les >  These pronouns replace the indirect object- to whom or for whom something is done.  Who is talking to John?  I am talking TO HIM.  (Le hablo yo.)  Are you giving the letter to Mary?  Yes, I am giving (to) her the letter.  (Sí, le doy la carta.)  If necessary to review, go to studyspanish.com and do these lessons: 44 - 45 -46

How do you tell the difference between direct and indirect?  The indirect is TO whom or FOR whom the action is done, the direct recieves the action. I hit the ball.  The ball(direct) is hit.  I buy milk for you.  Milk(direct) is bought- FOR you(indirect).  With practice you can do well.

A note here about español.  Because of the "personal A", sometimes Americans get confused if the object is direct or indirect.  You have to read the meaning and determine if the "A" in the sentence is the preposition "TO" or if it's the "personal A".  If it's the preposition, the object is indirect.  If it's the personal A, it's direct.

Direct or indirect?
Hablo a Juan.  Llamo a Juan.  Conozco a Juan.  Robo* a Juan.  Pregunto* a Juan.  Golpeo a Juan.
(Indirect, Direct, Direct, Indirect, Indirect, Direct)

*Some verbs - like preguntar and robar- are followed by indirect object, even though it may seem they are direct-  Who is asking John?  I am asking him.  But- what is being asked- "a question".  So «Le pregunto.»

Double object Pronouns ("it to her", "them to me", etc.)- Simple rule- Indirect before direct, reflexive always first.  You need to review this, estoy cierto.  Do the lesson.